Wallpaper is a kind of materials used to protect and decorate the inner walls of homes, offices, cafes, government buildings, museums, post offices, along with other buildings; it can be one element of interior decoration. It is usually available in rolls and is also put onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come plain as “lining paper” (so it could be painted or accustomed to help cover uneven surfaces and minor wall defects thus giving an improved surface), textured (for example Anaglypta), having a regular repeating pattern design, or, a lot less commonly today, having a single non-repeating large design carried over some sheets. The littlest rectangle that could be tiled to form the entire pattern is known as the pattern repeat.
Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing, printable wallpaper, silk screen-printing, rotary printing, and digital printing. Wallpaper is manufactured in long rolls, that are hung vertically over a wall. Patterned wallpapers were created to ensure the pattern “repeats”, and consequently pieces cut through the same roll could be hung next to one another in order to continue the pattern without it being easy to see where join between two pieces occurs. With regards to large complex patterns of images this can be normally achieved by starting the 2nd piece halfway into the size of the repeat, to ensure when the pattern going down the roll repeats after 24 inches, the following piece sideways is cut from your roll to get started 12 inches across the pattern through the first. The number of times the pattern repeats horizontally across a roll makes no difference for this specific purpose. Just one pattern might be issued in a number of different colorways.
The world’s most expensive wallpaper, ‘Les Guerres D’Independence’ (The Wars of Independence), was priced at £24,896.50 ($44,091, or €36,350) for some 32 panels. The wallpaper was built by Zuber in France and is very popular in the usa.
The key historical techniques are: hand-painting, woodblock printing (overall the most frequent), stencilling, and various types of machine-printing. The 1st three all go as far back to before 1700.
Wallpaper, making use of the printmaking manner of woodcut, became popular in Renaissance Europe amongst the emerging gentry. The social elite continued to hang large tapestries around the walls of their homes, since they had in the center Ages. These tapestries added color for the room and also providing an insulating layer in between the stone walls as well as the room, thus retaining heat within the room. However, tapestries were extremely expensive so only the very rich can afford them. Less well-off members of the elite, unable to buy tapestries due either to prices or wars preventing international trade, looked to wallpaper to brighten up their rooms.
Early wallpaper featured scenes much like those depicted on tapestries, and huge sheets from the paper were sometimes hung loose around the walls, from the style of tapestries, and sometimes pasted as today. Prints were frequently pasted to walls, as an alternative to being framed and hung, and also the largest sizes of prints, which arrived several sheets, were probably mainly supposed to have been pasted to walls. Some important artists made such pieces – notably Albrecht Dürer, who worked on both large picture prints plus ornament prints – designed for wall-hanging. The biggest picture print was The Triumphal Arch commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and finished in 1515. This measured a colossal 3.57 by 2.95 metres, made up of 192 sheets, and was printed within a first edition of 700 copies, intended to be hung in palaces and, specifically, town halls, after hand-coloring.
Very few examples of the earliest repeating pattern wallpapers survive, but you will find a large number of old master prints, often in engraving of repeating or repeatable decorative patterns. These are generally called ornament prints and were intended as models for wallpaper makers, among other uses.
England and France were leaders in European wallpaper manufacturing. One of the earliest known samples is one found on a wall from England and it is printed on the rear of a London proclamation of 1509. It became extremely popular in England following Henry VIII’s excommunication from the Catholic Church – English aristocrats had always imported tapestries from Flanders and Arras, but Henry VIII’s split with the Catholic Church had led to a fall in trade with Europe. Without any tapestry manufacturers in England, English gentry and aristocracy alike turned to wallpaper.
Through the Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell, the manufacture of Mural Base, viewed as a frivolous item from the Puritan government, was halted. After the Restoration of Charles II, wealthy people across England began demanding wallpaper again – Cromwell’s regime had imposed a boring culture on people, and following his death, wealthy people began purchasing comfortable domestic goods that have been banned underneath the Puritan state.
In 1712, during the reign of Queen Anne, a wallpaper tax was introduced that was not abolished until 1836. Through the mid-eighteenth century, Britain was the top wallpaper manufacturer in Europe, exporting vast quantities to Europe in addition to selling about the middle-class British market. However this trade was seriously disrupted in 1755 with the Seven Years’ War and later the Napoleonic Wars, and through huge level of duty on imports to France.
In 1748 the British Ambassador to Paris decorated his salon with blue flock wallpaper, which then became very fashionable there. From the 1760s the French manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon hired designers doing work in silk and tapestry to generate among the most subtle and splendid wallpaper ever produced. His sky blue wallpaper with fleurs-de-lys was adopted in 1783 on the first balloons through the Montgolfier brothers. The landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Pillement discovered in 1763 an approach to utilize fast colours.
Hand-blocked wallpapers such as these use hand-carved blocks and through the 18th century designs include panoramic views of antique architecture, exotic landscapes and pastoral subjects, and also repeating patterns of stylized flowers, people and animals.
In 1785 Christophe-Philippe Oberkampf had invented the very first machine for printing coloured tints on sheets of wallpaper. In 1799 Louis-Nicolas Robert patented a piece of equipment to create continuous lengths of paper, the forerunner in the Fourdrinier machine. This capacity to produce continuous lengths of wallpaper now offered the possibilities of novel designs and nice tints being widely displayed in drawing rooms across Europe.
Wallpaper manufacturers active in England in the 18th century included John Baptist Jackson and John Sherringham. Among the firms established in 18th-century America: J. F. Bumstead & Co. (Boston), William Poyntell (Philadelphia), John Rugar (The Big Apple).
High-quality wallpaper made in China became provided by the later part of the 17th century; this became entirely handpainted and extremely expensive. It can still be seen in rooms in palaces and grand houses including Nymphenburg Palace, Lazienki Palace, Chatsworth House, Temple Newsam, Broughton Castle, Lissan House, and Erddig. It had been composed to 1.2 metres wide. English, French and German manufacturers imitated it, usually starting with a printed outline that has been coloured in manually, a method sometimes also found in later Chinese papers.
Towards the end from the 18th century the fashion for scenic wallpaper revived both in England and France, creating some enormous panoramas, like the 1804 20 strip wide panorama, Sauvages de la Mer du Pacifique (Savages of your Pacific), produced by the artist Jean-Gabriel Charvet for your French manufacturer Joseph Dufour et Cie showing the Voyages of Captain Cook. This famous so named “papier peint” wallpaper continues to be in situ in Ham House, Peabody Massachusetts. It was actually the largest panoramic wallpaper of its time, and marked the burgeoning of a French industry in panoramic wallpapers. Dufour realized almost immediate success from the sale of these papers and enjoyed a lively trade with America. The Neoclassical style currently in favour worked well in houses of the Federal period with Charvet’s elegant designs. Like most 18th-century wallpapers, the panorama was designed to become hung above a dado.
‘Sauvages de la Mer Pacifique’, panels 1-10 of woodblock printed wallpaper created by Jean-Gabriel Charvet and manufactured by Joseph Dufour
Beside Joseph Dufour et Cie (1797 – c. 1830) other French manufacturers of panoramic scenic and trompe l’œil wallpapers, Zuber et Cie (1797-present) and Arthur et Robert exported their product across Europe and The United States. Zuber et Cie’s c. 1834 design Views of Canada And America hangs from the Diplomatic Reception Room of your White House.
While Joseph Dufour et Cie was turn off within the 1830s, Zuber et Cie still exists and, with Cole & Son of England as well as the Atelier d’Offard (1999-present) equally situated in France, is amongst the last Western producers of woodblock printed wallpapers. For the production Zuber uses woodblocks away from an archive of more than 100,000 cut inside the nineteenth century which are considered a “Historical Monument”. It includes panoramic sceneries including “Vue de l’Amérique Nord”, “Eldorado Hindoustan” or “Isola Bella” plus wallpapers, friezes and ceilings and also hand-printed furnishing fabrics.
Amongst the firms begun in France in the 19th century: Desfossé & Karth. In the usa: John Bellrose, Blanchard & Curry, Howell Brothers, Longstreth & Sons, Isaac Pugh in Philadelphia; Bigelow, Hayden & Co. in Massachusetts; Christy & Constant, A. Harwood, R. Prince in New York.
Throughout the Napoleonic Wars, trade between Europe and Britain evaporated, causing the gradual decline of the wallpaper industry in the uk. However, the end in the war saw a tremendous demand in Europe for British goods which in fact had been inaccessible through the wars, including cheap, colourful wallpaper. The growth of steam-powered printing presses in the uk in 1813 allowed manufacturers to mass-produce wallpaper, reducing its cost so rendering it cost effective to working-class people. Wallpaper enjoyed a massive boom in popularity in the nineteenth century, seen as a cheap and very efficient way of brightening up cramped and dark rooms in working-class areas. It became almost the norm in the majority of parts of middle-class homes, but remained relatively little found in public buildings and offices, with patterns generally being avoided such locations. Inside the latter 50 % of the century Lincrusta and Anaglypta, not strictly wallpapers, became popular competitors, especially below a dado rail. They are often painted and washed, and were a good price tougher, though also more pricey.
Wallpaper manufacturing firms established in England from the 19th century included Jeffrey & Co.; Shand Kydd Ltd.; Lightbown, Aspinall & Co.; John Line & Sons; Potter & Co.; Arthur Sanderson & Sons; Townshend & Parker. Designers included Owen Jones, William Morris, and Charles Voysey. Specifically, many 19th century designs by Morris & Co along with other Crafts and arts designers stay in production.
From the early twentieth century, wallpaper had established itself as one of the most in-demand household items all over the Western world. Manufacturers in the us included Sears; designers included Andy Warhol. Wallpaper has gone in and out of fashion since about 1930, however the overall trend has become for wallpaper-type patterned wallcoverings to lose ground to plain painted walls.
In early twenty-first century, wallpaper evolved into a lighting feature, improving the mood and the ambience through lights and crystals. Meystyle, a London-based company, invented LED incorporated wallpaper. The development of digital printing allows designers to break the mould and combine new technology and art to give wallpaper to a different level of popularity.
Historical samples of wallpaper are preserved by cultural institutions like the Deutsches Tapetenmuseum (Kassel) in Germany; the Musée des Arts Décoratifs (Paris) and Musée du Papier Peint (Rixheim) in France; the Victoria & Albert in britain; the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, Historic New England, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Usa National Park Service, and Winterthur in the us. Original designs by William Morris and other English wallpaper companies are held by Walker Greenbank.
When it comes to ways of creation, wallpaper types include painted wallpaper, hand-printed blockwood wallpaper, hand-printed stencil wallpaper, machine-printed wallpaper, and flock wallpaper.
Modern wallcoverings are diverse, and exactly what is identified as wallpaper may not any longer actually be produced from paper. Two of the very common factory trimmed sizes of wallpaper are referred to as “American” and “European” rolled goods. American rolled goods are 27 inches by 27 feet (8.2 m) long. European rolled goods are 21.5 inches wide by 33 feet (10 m) in size. Approx. 60 square feet (5.6 m2). Most wallpaper borders can be purchased by linear foot with an array of widths therefore square footage is not applicable. However some may require trimming.
The most common wall covering for residential use and customarily the most economical is prepasted vinyl coated paper, commonly called “strippable” that may be misleading. Cloth backed vinyl is rather common and durable. Lighter vinyls are simpler to handle and hang. Paper backed vinyls are typically more expensive, significantly more challenging to hang, and are available in wider untrimmed widths. Foil wallpaper generally has paper backing and may (exceptionally) be around 36 inches wide, and be very difficult to handle and hang. Textile wallpapers include silks, linens, grass cloths, strings, rattan, and 18dexspky impressed leaves. You can find acoustical wall carpets to reduce sound. Customized wallcoverings can be purchased at high prices and many often times have minimum roll orders.
Solid vinyl with a cloth backing is regarded as the common commercial wallcovering and arises from the factory as untrimmed at 54 inches approximately, being overlapped and double cut by the installer. This same type can be pre-trimmed with the factory to 27 inches approximately.
Furthermore, wallpaper for printing comes such as borders, typically mounted horizontally, and commonly near ceiling level of homes. Borders come in varying widths and patterns.